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Enterobacter

Enterobacter is a genus of bacteria that contains various species, some of which can significantly impact human health and cause disease. Here is an overview of how Enterobacter interacts with human health:

  1. Gut microbiome: While most Enterobacter species can cause infections, others might be harmless residents of the human gut, coexisting without causing illness as a negligible percentage of the total gut bacteria. This is an emerging situation in microbiology and their exact role in gut health and overall wellbeing is still under investigation. This is the reason why the ranges for Enterobacter in the Chuckling Goat test allow for a very small amount of this microbe to be present in samples.1Ramirez D, Giron M. Enterobacter Infections. [Updated 2022 Jun 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559296/#
  2. Antibiotic resistance: Enterobacter species are capable of developing antibiotic resistance, complicating the treatment of infections. Some strains produce enzymes – known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or carbapenemases – which can inactivate a wide range of antibiotics, requiring alternative treatments only available in hospitals.2Kang CI, Kim SH, Park WB, Lee KD, Kim HB, Oh MD, Kim EC, Choe KW. Bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacter species: predictors of 30-day mortality rate and impact of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance on outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 15;39(6):812-8. doi: 10.1086/423382.3Annavajhala MK, Gomez-Simmonds A, Uhlemann AC. Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Complex Emerging as a Global, Diversifying Threat. Front Microbiol. 2019 Jan 31;10:44. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00044.
  3. Nosocomial infections: Enterobacter species are known to cause hospital-acquired infections, often associated with contaminated medical devices, catheters, or surgical wounds. Implementing strict infection control measures in healthcare settings is vital to prevent their spread.4Wang WH, Wu YH, Wang YM, Wang CL, Liu Y, Gao P, Wu XJ, Ying JQ. Correlation Between the Number of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopies and Nosocomial Infection/Colonization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Infect Drug Resist. 2022 Jun 20;15:3205-3211. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S365053.5Ferry A, Plaisant F, Ginevra C, Dumont Y, Grando J, Claris O, Vandenesch F, Butin M. Enterobacter cloacae colonisation and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit: retrospective investigation of preventive measures implemented after a multiclonal outbreak. BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17;20(1):682. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05406-8.6Eichel V, Papan C, Boutin S, Pöschl J, Heeg K, Nurjadi D. Alteration of antibiotic regimen as an additional control measure in suspected multi-drug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2020 Feb;104(2):144-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.09.007.

In summary, Enterobacter bacteria play a complex role in human health, with most species causing opportunistic and nosocomial infections. Understanding and addressing the risks associated with the presence of Enterobacter species in your microbiome sample is vital for protecting the delicate balance of your gut microbial ecosystem.

Where to find Enterobacter in the Chuckling Goat Gut Microbiome Test

You will find your Enterobacter scores in the “Pathogens” report in your Chuckling Goat Gut Microbiome Test results. Guidance on how to work with pathogens like Enterobacter will be featured in your Personal Action Plan. Please note that this information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your GP or other qualified health provider if you have any questions about Enterobacter.

Synonyms: Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, Enterobacter infection, Enterobacter species, Enterobacteriaceae

Important disclaimer

The Chuckling Goat Gut Microbiome Handbook is an educational resource built to translate complex science into plain English. The information provided on this page is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your GP or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Always check with your GP for interactions with medications/health conditions before changing your diet or starting to take food supplements.

References

  • 1
    Ramirez D, Giron M. Enterobacter Infections. [Updated 2022 Jun 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559296/#
  • 2
    Kang CI, Kim SH, Park WB, Lee KD, Kim HB, Oh MD, Kim EC, Choe KW. Bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacter species: predictors of 30-day mortality rate and impact of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance on outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 15;39(6):812-8. doi: 10.1086/423382.
  • 3
    Annavajhala MK, Gomez-Simmonds A, Uhlemann AC. Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae Complex Emerging as a Global, Diversifying Threat. Front Microbiol. 2019 Jan 31;10:44. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00044.
  • 4
    Wang WH, Wu YH, Wang YM, Wang CL, Liu Y, Gao P, Wu XJ, Ying JQ. Correlation Between the Number of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopies and Nosocomial Infection/Colonization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Infect Drug Resist. 2022 Jun 20;15:3205-3211. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S365053.
  • 5
    Ferry A, Plaisant F, Ginevra C, Dumont Y, Grando J, Claris O, Vandenesch F, Butin M. Enterobacter cloacae colonisation and infection in a neonatal intensive care unit: retrospective investigation of preventive measures implemented after a multiclonal outbreak. BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17;20(1):682. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05406-8.
  • 6
    Eichel V, Papan C, Boutin S, Pöschl J, Heeg K, Nurjadi D. Alteration of antibiotic regimen as an additional control measure in suspected multi-drug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2020 Feb;104(2):144-149. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.09.007.

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